Molecular hydrogen is a relatively new niche in the world of hydrogen therapy. Since it is a nascent field, there is little research on how **hydrogen treatment effects skin cells**.

However, studies show that *molecular hydrogen reduces oxidative stress* in cells and tissues. This means it can protect your cell membranes from harmful molecules and reduce inflammation in the body.

How does it do this? When you inhale molecular hydrogen, it enters into your blood stream. Your blood carries it to every part of your body, including your skin. There, it encounters cells and intercellular fluids, all of which it attacks with its anti-oxidant properties.

By reducing oxidative stress in your body, molecular hydrogen can help with *numerous health issues related* to inflammation such as arthritis and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Health issues such as these can also affect the skin negatively.

## Calculating the number of molecules of water

So, let’s calculate the number of molecules of water in 2.0×1022 molecules of water. A molecule of **water contains two atoms** of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen.

There are six atoms in a molecule of water, so we need to multiply the number of molecules of water by six to get the number of atoms in a molecule of water.

We already know there are 2.0×1022 molecules of water, so we can just divide that by six to get the number of atoms in a molecule of water: 2.0×1022 / 6 = 4.

## Dividing the number of molecules by the molecular weight of water

Now let’s look at the other way to calculate the number of molecules in a given volume of water. First, we will calculate the number of moles of water in 2.0×1022 molecules of water.

Then we will divide the number of moles of water by 18 grams, which is the molecular weight of water. This will give us the number of grams of water per mole of water. Then we can multiply this by the volume of liquid to get the number of molecules in that volume!

Let’s try an example: You have a container that **holds 1 liter** (about 1 quart) of liquid. You measure the temperature at which the liquid changes states and find that it is 75 degrees Fahrenheit (25 degrees Celsius).

## Multiplying by the molecular weight of water

Now let’s go back to our original question.

How many moles of water, H2o, contain 2.0×1022 molecules of water?

To answer this, we need to know the molecular weight of water, which is 18 grams per mole. We also need to know how many molecules of water are in 22 trillion atoms of oxygen and 10 trillion atoms of hydrogen.

So we multiply 2.0×1022 atoms of oxygen and hydrogen by 18 grams per mole to get 36 trillion grams of water. Then we divide that by 2 trillion atoms to **get 18 billion grams** of water per mole of oxygen and hydrogen.

Therefore, there are **approximately 18 billion grams** (or ounces) of water for *every 2 atom molecule unit* (atoms of oxygen plus atoms of hydrogen) *within 22 trillion atomic units* (atoms) total.

## Converting to grams

Once you have the number of moles, you can find the mass of the molecule or molecule combination. You will need to know the molecular weight of the substance to do this.

To convert from moles to grams, you use the following formula: mass = number of moles × molecular weight.

So, how many grams of water (H2o) are in 2.0×1022 hydrogen oxide molecules? First, convert the number of molecules to moles: 2.0×1022 = 2 × 1023. Then, find the mass of one mole of water (18 grams), so mass = 18 g ÷ (2 × 1023) = 1 × 10−21g.

Finally, multiply that by the number of moles in 2.0×1022 hydrogen oxide molecules: 1 × 10−21g ÷ (2 × 1023) = 8 × 10−19g.

## Calculating volume using density

Once you know the molecule or atom density of a material, you can calculate the volume of that material by calculating its density, and then multiplying that by the total mass.

Density is typically expressed in *grams per cubic meter* (g/m^3) or kilograms per litre (kg/L). For our purposes, we will use g/m^3.

To calculate the volume of a substance using its density, you would do the following:

Calculate the density of the substance (in this case, water) Divide that by 1 cubic meter to get the mass of water in a cube 1 m^3 in size Multiply that by the volume of the substance you are looking for To calculate the volume of 2.0×1022 molecules of water: 2.0×1022 ÷ (1 ÷ 1000) = 2.02×10-8 m^3

So, there is approximately 2.02×10-8 m^2 of water in 2.0×1022 molecules.

## Dividing the moles by the volume

Now let’s talk about how many moles of water, H2o, contain 2.0×1022 molecules of water. You will need to divide the number of moles of water by the volume of water.

You already did the work to find out how many molecules of water are in 2.0×1022 molecules of hydrogen! So you just need to divide that number by the volume of a mole of hydrogen, which is 2.0×10−6 m3.

2.0 × 10−6 m3 ÷ (6.02 × 1023 molecules/mole)* = 2.

## Multiplying by Avogadro’s number

Now let’s go back to our original question. How many moles of water contain 2.0×1022 molecules of water?

To answer this, we need to know how many molecules of water are in 2.0×1022 molecules of hydrogen and oxygen. We can do this by multiplying the number of hydrogen atoms by the number of oxygen atoms, which is what we just learned how to do!

So we take 2.0×1022 and multiply it by 2 (the number of hydrogen atoms) and by 16 (the number of oxygen atoms). This gives us a result of 32, so there are 32 molecules of hydrogen and oxygen in 2.0×1022 molecules of water.

## Converting to units with same dimension as desired unit

Now let’s look at the other way to do this conversion. We’ll convert from moles of water to moles of water molecules, then we’ll convert from those moles of water molecules to the number of molecules in a cube with one nm on each edge.

We already determined that there are 2.0×1022 molecules of water in one mole of water, so we can write our conversion as:

molesWaterMolecules = molesWater / (molWater) = 2.0×1022 / (2.0×1022) = 1

This says that there is one mole of water molecules in a mole of water. So we can write the final answer as *one nm3ofwater containsone moleofwatermolecules*.